The First Narco Nation

21 Apr, 2016 | Jack Weatherford

Politics

Illustration: Hugo Cuéllar

History is a series of ambiguities. Oftentimes, political and economic power determines what we see as truth. One example of how power blurs the line of truth is by determining which businesses and enterprises are legitimate and which are illegal.


The United States frequently criticises Bolivia over the problem of drugs. In 2013, President Obama identified Bolivia, Burma, and Venezuela as the three countries that have consistently failed to meet the objectives of the US War on Drugs. Yet it could be argued that the United States, in fact, was history’s first ‘narco nation’. Today, few people realise that the wealth of the United States was, in part, originally based on the sale of drugs. In the 18th century, before the advent of heroin and cocaine, the United States was the world’s largest producer of tobacco and the drug nicotine.  

For many centuries, prior to the arrival of Europeans in North America, indigenous people used tobacco for medicinal and cultural purposes. Tobacco had a place in these indigenous cultures much like coca still has in Bolivia. Indigenous people did not use tobacco or coca for recreation or commercial purposes.

The English colonists in North America recognised the potential profit from tobacco and created a market for it. Meanwhile, governments around the world had outlawed this dangerous, addictive drug. The Ottoman Empire banned tobacco in 1633, China in 1612, and Russia in 1613, and in 1617 even Mongolia made smoking a crime. Using the still relatively new technology of the printing press, American tobacco producers and their English marketing partners launched a massive propaganda campaign of books, pamphlets, and illustrations to promote tobacco as healthful and to portray it as fashionable in European cafés and royal courts.

In a world not yet accustomed to advertising and propaganda, these false claims about tobacco succeeded. Tobacco became so wildly popular in the royal courts of Europe that the American colonists quickly became wealthy. In the middle of the 18th century, the colonies in North America produced an average of 18,000 kilogrammes of tobacco each year. The trade became so lucrative that every colony produced a crop, but production was centred around the Chesapeake Bay and in the area of the present-day Southern states.

American colonial growers sought to control not only the cultivation of tobacco, but also its sale, which required the wresting of the market away from the English and the cessation of the heavy taxes paid to the Crown. And so they revolted against British rule.

This new tobacco market financed the American Revolution, as the colonists’ burgeoning army was supported with taxes on tobacco and loans from the French using tobacco as collateral. Unlike Bolivia and Mexico, which each had vast silver deposits from which to mint coins, the North American revolutionaries did not initially have their own currency and instead used tobacco as money. So important was tobacco to the revolutionary cause that the British military targeted tobacco crops and warehouses for destruction as the key to defeating the rebels. The British Navy blockaded the ports of the incipient nation and managed to confiscate 15,500 kilogrammes of tobacco bound for sale in Europe. Because of the importance of this one commodity, the war between the new American nation and Great Britain became known as the ‘Tobacco War’ in the area around the state of Maryland and the modern-day capital of Washington, DC. Today, the war has the more politically powerful name of the ‘American Revolution’, which ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

Tobacco enabled the creation of a new narco nation, the United States of America. In 1787, delegates from the 13 former colonies met in Philadelphia to write a new Constitution for the emerging country. The most powerful delegates to the Constitutional Convention represented the tobacco growers in the South, and they fought to protect their tobacco interests, in particular the importation of slaves from Africa and the expansion of lands to the west for more tobacco plantations. Of the first five American presidents, four were tobacco growers: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. To solidify their hold on the new American government, the Southerners moved the capital from Philadelphia to tobacco country along the Potomac River, where Washington, DC, sits today. To illustrate the importance of tobacco to the American economy, the new congressional building was decorated with tobacco plants and its columns were crowned with tobacco leaves.

In hope of finding new areas for tobacco cultivation, President Thomas Jefferson purchased the French lands along the Mississippi River in 1803, doubling the size of the United States by adding over 2 million square kilometers, an area almost twice the size of modern Bolivia. New Orleans, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, became the drug supplier to the world. As the United States grew and pushed westward, the new land was less suitable for tobacco cultivation, and slowly the country found new crops, such as cotton and maize (which was easily transformed into another intoxicant, corn whiskey).

Tobacco grower James Monroe, who negotiated the Louisiana Purchase for Thomas Jefferson and eventually succeeded him as president, extended US influence into Latin American markets by creating the Monroe Doctrine, which limited the activity and influence of Europe in the Western Hemisphere. This project established the precedent for perpetual US interference in the commerce and politics of Latin America.

These North Americans of European ancestry created the first global drug trade with tobacco, and soon capitalists around the world followed their example by expanding into the production of other drugs, such as opium. Scientists helped to create even stronger substances, such as heroin (from opium) and cocaine (from coca). But just as US citizens became some of the heaviest users of tobacco, they also became addicted to other drugs. Ironically, the United States now has a massive substance-abuse problem, and, unable to control its drug problem at home, US officials constantly divert attention by accusing Bolivia and other developing countries of being the source of the problem.

Today the United States is the centre of the international drug trade. It is the world’s largest drug market, and it supplies the bulk of the funds in the international narcotics trade. For nearly 400 years, the United States has been a leading producer and consumer of licit and illicit narcotics, pointing the finger of guilt at Bolivia and obscuring the fact that it is still history’s leading narco nation. If only the people and the government of the United States would look at their own history, they would understand their country’s central role in the creation and maintenance of the global drug trade.


Anthropologist Jack Weatherford was born on a tobacco farm in South Carolina. He is the author of El Legado Indígena, which examines the contributions of indigenous Americans to world history.

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Puthai Nattaradol
23 Jun, 2018 | 18:41
We are able to finance your signatory projects and help you enhance your business plan. Furthermore, our financial instrument can be used for the purchase of goods from any manufacturer irrespective of their location. It can also serve as collateral with any bank in the world to secure loans for your project or to activate credit line to finance your business plan. We have {BG}, Standby Letter of Credit {SBLC}, Medium Term Notes {MTN}, Confirmable Bank Draft {CBD} as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed. Email : nat.mandate18@gmail.com Skype : nat.mandate18@gmail.com Regards Nat
Walsh Robert
07 Jun, 2018 | 00:11
We are authorized Financial consulting firm that work directly with A rated banks eg Lloyds Bank,Barclays Bank,hsbc bank etc We provide BG, SBLC, LC, LOAN and lots more for client all over the world. Equally,we are ready to work with Brokers and financial consultants/consulting firms in their respective countries. We are equally ready to pay commission to those Brokers and financial consultants/consulting firms. Awaiting a favourable response from you. Best regards WALSH SMITH, ROBERT email : info.iqfinanceplc@gmail.com skype: cpt_young1
Ramadan Rasheed
05 Jun, 2018 | 18:51
We are direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC and MTN which are specifically for lease, our bank instrument can be engage in PPP Trading, Discounting, signature project (s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication, construction of Dams, Bridges, Real Estate and all kind of projects. We do not have any broker chain in our offer or get involved in chauffer driven offers. We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description. The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee will be paid after the delivery of the MT760, DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS: 1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee ) (Appendix A)(BG/SBLC 2. Total Face Value: Eur 5M MIN and Eur 10B MAX (Ten Billion USD). 3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt. 4. Age: One Year, One Month 5. Leasing Price: 6% of Face Value plus 2% commission fees to brokers. 6. Delivery: Bank to Bank swift. 7. Payment: MT-103 or MT760 8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days. We are ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me direct. Regards, Ramadan Rasheed Email:fahadfinanceltd@gmail.com
Fachtna O'Mahony
11 May, 2018 | 17:55
We are Ireland based major/Direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC, POF, MTN, Bonds and CDs and this financial instruments are specifically for lease and sale.We are one of the leading Financial instrument providers with offices all over Europe. we always deliver on time and precision as Set forth in the agreement. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs, project financing, Credit line enhancement, Corporate Loans (Business Start-up Loans or Business Expansion Loans), Equipment Procurement Loans (Industrial Equipment, Air crafts, Ships, etc.) Genuine Bank Guarantee (BG) And Standby Letter Of Credit (SBLC) Offer Name:Fachtna O'Mahony E-mail:paciolifinancialservicesltd@gmail.com Skype id:paciolifinancialservicesltd@gmail.com
Walsh Robert
10 Apr, 2018 | 03:17
We are authorized Financial consulting firm that work directly with A rated banks eg Lloyds Bank,Barclays Bank,hsbc bank etc We provide BG, SBLC, LC, LOAN and lots more for client all over the world. Equally,we are ready to work with Brokers and financial consultants/consulting firms in their respective countries. We are equally ready to pay commission to those Brokers and financial consultants/consulting firms. Awaiting a favourable response from you. Best regards WALSH SMITH, ROBERT email : info.iqfinanceplc@gmail.com skype: cpt_young1
badigantla srinivasa
24 Mar, 2018 | 20:26
We specialized in Bank Guarantee {BG}, Standby Letter of Credit {SBLC}, Medium Term Notes {MTN}, Confirmable Bank Draft {CBD} as well as other financial instruments issued from AAA Rated bank such as HSBC Bank Hong Kong, HSBC Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt, Barclays Bank , Standard Chartered Bank and others on lease at the lowest available rates depending on the face value of the instrument needed. We will be glad to share our working procedures with you upon request to help us proceed towards closing deals effectively. Email: raofinance90@gmail.com Skype: raofinance90@gmail.com Regards Rao
greg lockmandy
20 Feb, 2018 | 17:41
In 2017, we promised to make the banking instrument trading simpler and we kept our promise. But we’ve always wanted to be more than a financial consultant that handles international finances for any amount of banking instruments. This year, we chalked out a vision for our future. We are all set to take the leap and make major additions to our core products and services such as securing BG's, SBLC's both Fresh cuts and Leasing. We've had a very fruitful and productive 2017. Thank you for being a big part of the family! You thrive, we thrive. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved. We are committed to serve you better. For more information Email: greglockmandy@gmail.com .................... Best Wishes, greg lockmandy Verified Banking Instrument, Plc Adamson House 2nd Floor, Towers Business Park, Didsbury, Manchester, M20 2YY
Ava Duke
13 Feb, 2018 | 09:44
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Hugh mckeon
06 Feb, 2018 | 07:19
We have a direct genuine provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of 4+2 of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA. Contact : Mr. Hugh Mckeon Email:Mchugh017@gmail.com Skype ID:Mchugh017@gmail.com Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved. All inquires to Mr Hugh Mckeon should include the following minimum information so I can quickly address your needs: Complete contact information: What exactly do you need? How long do you need it for? Are you a principal borrower or a broker? Contact me for more details.

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